Over the last decade several wireless architectures have been developed for transmitting meteorological and oceanographic data (in real-time or near real-time) from coral reef ecosystems in Florida, the Caribbean, Saipan, and Australia. These architectures facilitate establishing trends in environmental parameters and aid in ecosystem modeling and ecological forecasting. Here, existing architectures as well as those currently in development are described, incorporating use of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites, radio transceivers, wireless digital cellular modems, mobile wireless hotspots, and Android phones. Each architecture is reviewed for advantages and disadvantages, along with some examples of deployments. These summaries provide reef managers and scientists with a suite of options for monitoring, allowing the selection of the most appropriate architecture for the particular needs and capacities of each coral reef location.
(1) Hendee, J.; Gramer, L.J.; Heron, S.F.; Jankulak, M.; Amornthammarong, N.; Shoemaker, M.; Burgess, T.; Fajans, J.; Bainbridge, S.; Skirving, W. Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2012, Australia.